Over all this is the same architecture as SharePoint 2010:
Proxy Group (Groups of Service Applications consumed by a Web Application)
Service Application Proxy (Proxy between the Group and the Application)
Service Application (Search, User Profile, etc)
Service Application Instance (may be multiple instances of certain service applications)
Database (if needed)
This architecture is intended for multitenant (think cloud
hosted) farms. It allows you to have a
central set of service applications and share them, as required, to all the
site collections within the farm and even to site collections in different
SharePoint farms. The inter-farm sharing
is a very interesting concept for the larger enterprise clients, along with
companies hosting SharePoint. When
dealing with a large group of users these service applications can become very
resource intensive. One way to plan for
this is to have a farm that is dedicated to the services. This allows you to have smaller farm(s) that
are only required the resources needed to render the SharePoint sites, but
still have a common set of search results or user profiles for example.
You have the same two choices: either through the Central
Admin GUI or through PowerShell.
Although if you really consider yourself a SharePoint administrator,
then your only option is through PowerShell.
All jokes aside, avoid setting up Service Applications through the GUI. The SharePoint GUI makes lots of bad
decisions when creating your service applications, for example: using GUIDs
when creating the databases, using the server name when creating web
applications for the service applications.
This is what allows you to share service applications across
farms both locally and remotely.
Although this hasn't really changed in SharePoint 2013, the service
applications that can shared across farms has.
Here is a list of the service applications that can shared across farms:
Machine Translation Services
In addition the remote farm no longer requires permissions
to the parent database.
New Service Applications
Here is a list of the new Service Applications for SharePoint
Access Services: Create, deploy and manage collaborative web-based Access applications. This can also be used when developing SharePoint Apps
App Management Service: For the Market Place
Machine Translation Services: Cloud based translation service for documents, pages and sites. Has been built to be extendable, has the ability to use third party translators
Work Management Services: Puts all your outstanding tasks in My Tasks. Has two way sync with Project Server, Exchange and plugins for other systems (MS is very vague on what that means). Even has the ability to remind you of tasks on your mobile device. You’ll never be safe again
Improved Service Applications
These service applications have gotten even better in SharePoint